Coronavirus pandemic: People with blood type A are at higher risk of infection, finds study

People with type A blood have a slightly greater chance of infection with the current coronavirus relative to classes with non-A blood. That is the result of a recent report by Chinese researchers who suggest blood type O has a relatively lower chance of infection and frequency relative to non-O blood types.

The research, which examined Wuhan patients, also showed that people with blood type A was more likely to die from COVID-19. Of the 206 patients who died in the report, 85 had blood type A, leading to 41.26 percent of all fatalities, the review reveals, a pre-print edition of which can be viewed at medRxiv.

To date, in the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 7,950 people have died, and over 198,100 cases have been identified. Recent scientific findings indicate the age and ethnicity of people are two contributing factors of COVID-19 susceptibility.

Older individuals, males and others with chronic health problems are most vulnerable to illness and a more serious disease, doctors claim.

But no biological markers have been identified so far to determine the vulnerability to COVID-19, claim Chinese researchers.

Accordingly, the researchers contrasted the distribution of the blood group in 2,173 COVID-19 patients, supported by trials from three hospitals in Wuhan and Shenzhen, China, to that of average people from similar areas.

Health experts collected ABO-typed blood samples from 1,775 patients infected with COVID-19, including 206 dead cases, at the Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan.

A further 113 and 285 COVID-19 patients were recruited from Wuhan University Renmin Hospital, Hubei Province and Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, Guangdong Province, China respectively.

Two new surveys of ABO blood group distribution of 3,694 normal Wuhan City patients and 23,386 normal Shenzhen City patients were used as comparative tests for the Wuhan and Shenzhen COVID-19 patients respectively, the team reports.

In 3,694 average citizens in Wuhan, the ABO blood community had a percentage distribution of 32.16 percent, 24.90 percent, 9.10 percent, and 33.84 percent respectively for A, B, AB, and O, according to the findings.

Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital’s 1,775 COVID-19 patients reported an ABO distribution of 37.75 percent, 26.42 percent, 10.03 percent, and 25.80 percent respectively for A, B, AB, and O.

“The proportion of blood group A in COVID-19 patients was substantially higher than in regular patients, with 37.75% in the former versus 32.16% in the latter. The proportion of blood group O in COVID-19 patients was slightly lower than in regular patients, with 25.80% in the former versus 33.84% in the latter,” states the team.

They say, “These findings corresponded to a slightly elevated risk for COVID-19 in blood group A with an odds ratio (OR) of 1,279 and a reduced risk for COVID in blood group.

Among deceased victims, the researchers found a common pattern of distribution of high risk blood group A and low risk blood group O. For fact, among the 206 dead victims, the concentrations of blood classes A, B, AB and O is 41.26 percent, 24.27 percent, 9.22 percent, and 25.24 percent, claim researchers, respectively.

“Blood group O was associated with a lower risk of death compared to non-O classes, with an OR of 0.660. Instead, blood group A was associated with a higher risk of death compared to non-A classes, with an OR of 1.482,” the report states.

The second study, which studied 113 COVID-19 patients from Wuhan University’s Renmin Hospital, has had identical outcomes. The study indicates that 45 patients (39.82 percent) have blood type A, the lowest in the nation.

“Blood group O was strongly correlated with a lower risk of infection compared to non-O groups. Blood group A demonstrated greater relative risk than those found in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital patients, according to non-A blood groups,” says the team.

The report also notes that in 23,368 average citizens in Shenzhen, the ABO blood community had a percentage distribution of 28.77%, 25.14%, 7.32% and 38.77% respectively for A, B, AB and O.

Shenzhen’s third study of 285 COVID-19 patients found that the proportions of blood groups A, B, AB and O were 28.77%, 29.12%, 13.68%, and 28.42%, respectively.

“Likewise, blood group O has been linked with a slightly lower risk of infection. However, we observed that blood group AB has an elevated risk of infection in this group,” the results note.

Researchers say the findings indicate that the form of ABO blood is a biomarker for COVID-19’s “differential susceptibility.” “We first note a correlation between COVID-19 susceptibility and the ABO blood community, showing the latter to be a biomarker that differentiates the former,” the researchers conclude.

Evidence of this theory would involve clear research. There may also be other factors behind the ABO blood group-differentiated vulnerability to COVID-19 that need more research to elucidate, “states the team. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, the results have important therapeutic consequences. Researchers agree that individuals with blood group A will need” strengthened protective security “to minimize infectious risk.

COVID-19-infected patients with blood group A can need to be monitored more vigilantly and vigorously. This might be useful to incorporate ABO blood typing in both patients and medical personnel as a regular part of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections treatment to better identify the control choices and determine people’s risk exposure rates, “the team suggests. Furthermore, they note that more research on this factor are required and one should be cautious to use this analysis to monitor clinical exposure.